Who's Who? (2879BC - 1527AD)
Who's Who? (1527-1954)



Hong Bang


Hng Dng

Lc Tc

National Founder


Hng Hin

Sng Lm



Hng Lân




Hng Vip




Hng Hy




Hng Huy




Hng Chiêu




Hng V




Hng Đnh




Hng Hy




Hng Trinh




Hng V




Hng Vit




Hng Anh




Hng Triu




Hng To




Hng Nghi




Hng Du



Kinh Duong Vuong reigns over the Xich Quy kingdom that spread in the North up to the Blue river; in the South to Central Viet Nam; in the West up to Sseutch'ouan; and in the East as far as the sea. The Hong Bang dynasty that reigns over the Van Lang kingdom situated in Tonquin and in the Northern part of Central Viet Nam.

The Thuc dynasty


An Dng Vng

Thc Phn


The Trieu dynasty


Triu V Vng

Triu Đ



Dng Vn Vng

Triu H



Triu Minh Vng

Triu Anh T



Triu Ai Vng

Triu Hng



Triu Dng Vng

Triu Kin Đc


Chinese general Tch'ao To (Trieu Da) who reigns over the Nan-yue (Nam Viet) kingdom with capital at Fan-yu, subdued the Au Lac kingdom. He founded the Trieu dynasty that reigns at Fan-yu. In Tonquin (Kiao-tche, Giao Chi), legend of My Chau and Trong Thuy attached to the Co Loa capital (Phuc Yen province). 

Trung Nu Vuong


Trng N Vng

Trng Trc & Nh

First queens

Trung Trac and Trung Nhi,
In 39, when two widows of local aristocrats, the Trung sisters, led an uprising against foreign rule. The revolt was briefly successful, and the older sister, Trung Trac, established herself as ruler of an independent state. Chinese armies returned to the attack, however, and in 43 Viet Nam was reconquered.
Trung sisters' Homepage

Trieu Thi Trinh, fought for Viet Nam's independence against China in 248. Defeated at the age of 23, she committed suicide.


The earlier Ly and Trieu


Lư Nam Đ

Lư Bôn

Thiên Đc


Lư Đa Lang Vng


Thiên Bo


Triu Vit Vng

Triu Quang Phc



Hu Lư Nam Đ


Lư Pht T

The Ngo dynasty




Reign Title


Ngô Vng


Ngô Quyn


Dng Bnh Vng

cp ngôi

Tam Kha


Ngô Nam Tn Vng


Xng Vn


Ngô Thiên Sch Vng


Xng Ngp

In a protracted war which ended with the celebrated battle of Bach Dang. General Ngo Quyen vanquished the Chinese invaders and founded the first National dynasty. Ngo Quyen transfered the capital to Co Loa, the capital of Au Lac Kingdom, thus affirming the continuity of the traditions of the Lac Viet people. Ngo Quyen spent 6 years of his reign fighting the continual revolts of the feudal lords. At his death in 967, the kingdom fell into chaos and became known as the land of "Thap Nhi Su Quan", the 12 feudal principlities constantly fighting each other.
Ngo Quyen's Homepage

The Dinh dynasty


Đinh Tiên Hong

B Lnh

Thi Bnh


Đinh Ph Đ

Đinh Ton

Thi Bnh

The most powerful of the 12 feudal lords, Dinh Bo Linh rapidly ruled out the others. He reunified the country and took the imperial title of "Dinh Tien Hoang De" (The First August Emperor Dinh). He negotiated a non-aggression treaty in exchange for tributes payable to the Chinese every 3 years. This set the traditions with China which were to last for centuries. On the domestic front, Dinh Tien Hoang established a royal court and a hierarchy of civil and military servants. He instated a rigorous justice system and introduced the death penalty to serve as a deterrent to all who threatened the new order of the new kingdom. He organized a regular army divided into 10 Dao. Security and order were progressively re-established, inaugurating a new era of "Thai Binh" (peace). He was assasinated in 979 by a palace guard, who according to the Annals, saw "a star falling into his mouth" - a celestial omen heralding promotion. The heir to the throne was only 6 years old.

The earlier Le dynasty


Lê Đi Hnh

Lê Hon

Thiên Phc

1005 (3d)

Lê Trung Tông


Long Vi


Lê Long Đnh

(Lê Nga Triu)

ng Thiên

Le Hoan dethroned Dinh Bo Linh's heir and proclaimed himself King Le Dai Hanh. He retained the capital in Hoa Luu and succeeded in warding off several Chinese invasions. With peace assured on the northern border, he decided to pacify the South. In 982, Le Dai Hanh launched a military expedition against the Champa kingdom, entered Indrapura (present-day Quang Nam) and burnt the Champa citadel. The conquest of this nothern part of the Champa Kingdom brought about a marked Cham influence on Vietnamese culture, particular in the fields of music and dance. Le Dai Hanh devoted a great deal of energy to developing the road network in order to better administer the countrưs different regions. After 24 years of difficult rule, he died in 1005.

Genghis Khan, original name Temujin (1167?-1227), Mongol conqueror, whose nomad armies created a vast empire under his control, from China to Russia. He was born near Lake Baikal in Russia, the son of Yesukai, a Mongol chief and ruler of a large region between the Amur River and the Great Wall of China. At the age of 13, Temujin succeeded his father as tribal chief. His early reign was marked by successive revolts of his subject tribes and an intense struggle to retain his leadership, but the Mongol ruler soon demonstrated his military genius and conquered not only his intractable subjects but his hostile neighbors as well. By 1206 Temujin was master of almost all of Mongolia. In that year, a convocation of the subjugated tribes proclaimed him Genghis Khan (Chinese chêng-sze, "precious warrior"; Turkish khan, "lord"), leader of the united Mongol and Tatar tribes; the city of Karakorum was designated his capital. The khan then began his conquest of China. By 1208 he had established a foothold inside the Great Wall, and in 1213 he led his armies south and west into the area dominated by the Juchen Chin (or Kin) dynasty (1122-1234), not stopping until he reached the Shantung Peninsula. In 1215 his armies captured Yenking (now Beijing), the last Chin stronghold in northern China, and in 1218 the Korean Peninsula fell to the Mongols. In 1219, in retaliation for the murder of some Mongol traders, Genghis Khan turned his armies westward, invading Khoresm, a vast Turkish empire that included modern Iraq, Iran, and part of Western Turkestan. Looting and massacring, the Mongols swept through Turkestan and sacked the cities of Bukhoro and Samarqand. In what are now northern India and Pakistan, the invaders conquered the cities of Peshawar and Lahore and the surrounding countryside. In 1222 the Mongols marched into Russia and plundered the region between the Volga and Dnepr rivers and from the Persian Gulf almost to the Arctic Ocean. The greatness of the khan as a military leader was borne out not only by his conquests but by the excellent organization, discipline, and maneuverability of his armies. Moreover, the Mongol ruler was an admirable statesman; his empire was so well organized that, so it was claimed, travelers could go from one end of his domain to the other without fear or danger. At his death, on August 18, 1227, the Mongol Empire was divided among his three sons and gradually dissipated. Four of his grandsons, however, became great Mongol leaders in their own right. Genghis Khan's invasions were of great historical importance long after his death, for the Turks, who fled before him, were driven to their own invasion of Europe.

The Ly dynasty


Lư Thi T

Lư Công Un

Thun Thiên


Lư Thi Tông

Lư Pht M

Thiên Thnh


Lư Thnh Tông

Lư Nht Tôn

Long Thy


Lư Nhân Tông

Lư Cn Đc

Thi Ninh


Lư Thn Tông

Lư Dng Hon

Thiên Thun


Lư Anh Tông

Lư Thiên T

Thiu Minh


Lư Cao Tông

Lư Long Cn

Trinh Ph


Lư Hu Tông

Lư Sm

Kin Gia


Lư Chiêu Hong

Chiêu Thnh

Thiên Chng

Ly Cong Uan was a disciple of a famous monk, Van Hanh, who helped him into power in the Hoa Luu Court. Assuming the name Ly Thai To, the new sovereign inaugurated his dynasty with a change of capital. According to the Annals, king Ly Thai To saw the apparition of an ascending dragon on the site of the future capital and decided to name it Thang Long (Ascending Dragon).

Ly Thanh Tong rechristened the country Dai Viet.

Ly Thai Tong, Ly Anh Tong, and Ly Cao Tong led the Buddhist sects of Thao Duong and founded some 150 monasteries in the region of Thang Long. The Ly dynasty consolidated the monarchy by setting up a centralized government and establishing a tax system, a judiciary system and a professional army. Important public works, including the building of dikes and canals, were undertaken inorder to develop argriculture and settle the population. Vietnamese art and culture thrived during the Ly dynasty.

The Tran dynasty


Trn Thi Tông

Trn Cnh

Kin Trung


Trn Thnh Tông

Trn Hong

Thiu Long


Trn Nhân Tông

Trn Khâm

Thiu Bo


Trn Anh Tông

Trn Thuyên

Hng Long


Trn Minh Tông

Trn Mnh

Đi Khnh


Trn Hin Tông

Trn Vng

Khai Hu


Trn D Tông

Trn Ho

Thiu Phong


Dng Nht L

(cp ngôi)

Đi Đnh


Trn Ngh Tông

Trn Ph

Thiu Khnh


Trn Du Tông

Trn Knh

Long Khnh


Trn Ph Đ

Trn Hin

Xng Ph


Trn Thun Tông

Trn Ngung

Quang Thi


Trn Thiu Đ

Trn n

Kin Tân

Tran Hung Dao (1213-1300), Vietnamese general. In 1284, Kublai Khan leads a 500,000-man Chinese army into Viet Nam. Guerrillas organized by Tran Hung Dao virtually destroy the invasion force.
Tran Hung Dao's Homepage

Kublai Khan (1215-94), Mongol military leader, founder and first emperor (1279-94) of the Mongol Yüan dynasty in China, grandson of the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan and his best-known successor. Kublai Khan completed the conquest of China that was begun by his grandfather. From 1252 to 1259 he aided his brother Mangu Khan in the conquest of southern China, penetrating successfully as far as Tibet and Tonkin. Upon the death of Mangu in 1259 he became the khan, or ruler. Between 1260 and 1279 he succeeded in driving the Kin Tatars out of northern China and in subduing rebellious factions among the Mongols. In 1264 he founded his capital on the site now occupied by Beijing; it was called Khanbalik, which is romanized as Cambaluc or Cambalu. He relinquished all claims to the parts of the Mongol Empire outside China, consolidated his hold on China, and in 1279 established the Yüan dynasty as the successor to the Southern Sung dynasty. He undertook foreign wars in attempts to enforce tribute claims on neighboring states, conquering Burma and Korea. His military expeditions to Java and Japan, however, met with disaster. His name was known all over Asia and also in Europe. The court at Cambaluc attracted an international group of adventurous men, including the famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo. Kublai Khan did much to encourage the advancement of literature and the arts. He was a devout Buddhist and made Buddhism the state religion, but during his reign other religions were also tolerated.
Stern-faced portrait
Bronze seal as authority emblem of Mongol officers

Princess Huyen Tran, married to the King of Champa in 1307. The marriage extended the national territory southwards with the peaceful annexation of the Hue region and at the same time inaugurated the politics and diplomatic marriage.

The Ho dynasty


H Quư Ly


Thnh Nguyên


H Hn Thng


Thiu Thnh

Le Qui Ly, founded a dynasty under his ancestral name of Ho. Under Ho, the competitive examination system for administrators was modified to demand more practical knowledge of peasant life, mathematics, history, the Confucian classics and literature. Legal reforms were undertaken and a medical service established. In 1407, The Ming intervention provoked the fall of the Ho dynasty. During the short period of Chinese occupation that followed, the Vietnamese suffered the most inhuman exploitation.

The later Tran dynasty


Trn Gin Đnh

Trn Đ Ngi

Hng Khnh


Trn Quư Khong


Trng Quang

The Le dynasty


Lê Thi T

Lê Li

Thun Thiên


Lê Thi Tông

Lê Nguyên Long

Thiu Bnh


Lê Nhân Tông

Lê Bang C

Thi Ha


Lê Nghi Dân

(cp ngôi)

Thiên Hng


Lê Thnh Tông

Lê T Thnh

Hng Đc


Lê Hin Tông

Lê Tang

Cnh Thng


Lê Tc Tông

Lê Thun

Thi Trinh


Lê Uy Mc

Lê Tun

Đoan Khnh


Lê Tng Dc

Lê Oanh

Hng Thun


Lê Chiêu Tông

Lê Ư

Quang Thiu


Lê Cung Hong

Lê Xuân

Thng Nguyên

Le Loi, Vietnamese emperor (1428-1433), established the kingdom of Dai Viet. He organized a resistance movement from his village and waged a guerrilla war against the China's Ming Empire. By employing a strategy of surprise attacks targeting his adversary's weakest points, Le Loi managed to further weaken the enemy and at the same time avoid combat with the superior Chinese forces. His enforcement of strict military discipline ensured that no pillaging was carried out by his troops in the regions under his control and this made him a very popular hero.

Nguyen Trai, poet and strategist, set down the Vietnamese strategy in an essay which subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it stated: "Better to conquer hearts than citadels". In 1426, Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hano In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Viet Nam's independence, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scale assault against Viet Nam.

Le Thai Tong, Vietnamese emperor, son of Le Thai To. His sudden death was followed by a decade of confusion marked by intrigues and plots within the Royal Court.

Under his 36 year reign the country prospered as never before. Le Thanh Tong revised the fiscal system, encouraged argriculture and placed great emphasis on customs and moral principles. A writer himself, he founded the Tao Dan Academy and wrote the first volume of national history. He reorganized army won an easy victory over the Champa army in 1471. His farmer-soldiers excelled not only on the battlefields, but also in the fields where they established militarized argricultural communities wherever they went. In this way the national territory was gradually expanded southwards, until finally the Champa Kingdom was completely absorbed and assimilated in 1673.

Alexandre de Rhodes, the misionary who traveled through out Asia in the 17th century. An accomplished linguist, he improvised Portuguese into Quoc Ngu, still in use today, to transcribe the Vietnamese language in Roman letters instead of Chinese ideographs.
Opening page of Alexandre de Rhodes's Latin Annamese religious text
Stamps commemorating Alexandre de Rhodes



The Mac dynasty
  Emperor   Reign Title
1527-1529 Mc Đng Dung   Minh Đc
1530-1540 Mc Đng Doanh   Đi Chnh
1541-1546 Mc Phc Hi   Qung Ha
1546-1561 Mc Phc Nguyên   Vnh Đnh
1562-1592 Mc Mu Hp   Thun Phc
1592-1592 Mc Ton   V An
1592-1593 Mc Knh Ch   Bo Đnh
1593... Mc Knh Cung   Cn Thng
1596-1596 Mc Knh Chng    
1598-1598 Mc Knh Dng   Thi Bnh
1625-1638 Mc Knh Khoan   Long Thi
1638-1678 Mc Knh Hon   Thun Đc
1666-1666 Mc Knh V    
1692-1692 Mc Knh Ch    
Mac Dang Dung, shrewded and scheming adviser at the Royal Court, seized control and found the Mac dynasty.
The later Le dynasty
1533-1548 Lê Trang Tông Lê Duy Ninh Nguyên Ha
1549-1556 Lê Trung Tông Lê Huyên Thun Bnh
1557-1573 Lê Anh Tông Lê Duy Bang Thiên Hu
1573-1599 Lê Th Tông Lê Duy Đm Gia Thi
1600-1619 Lê Knh Tông Lê Duy Tân Thun Đc
1619-1643 Lê Thn Tông Lê Duy Ky` Vnh T
1643-1649 Lê Chân Tông Lê Duy Hu Phc Thi
1649-1662 Lê Thn Tông Lê Duy Ky` (ln 2) Vnh T
1663-1671 Lê Huyn Tông Lê Duy V Cnh Tr
1672-1675 Lê Gia Tông Lê Duy Hi Do+ng Đc
1676-1705 Lê Huy Tông Lê Duy Hp Vnh Tr
1705-1729 Lê D Tông Lê Duy Đng Vnh Thnh
1729-1732 Lê Đ Lê Duy Phng Vnh Khnh
1732-1735 Lê Thun Tông Lê Duy Tng Long Đc
1735-1740 Lê Ư Tông Lê Duy Thn Vnh Hu
1740-1786 Lê Hin Tông Lê Duy Diêu Cnh Hng
1787-1788 Lê Mn Đ Lê Duy Ky` Chiêu Thng
The Tay Son brothers
1778-1793 Nguyn Nhc   Thi Đc
1788-1792 Nguyn Hu Nguyn Qung Bnh Quang Trung
1793-1802 Nguyn Quang Ton   Cnh Thnh
The Tay Son brothers - Nguyen Nhac, Nguyen Lu and Nguyen Hue - staged an uprising against the leading Le Lords.
Quang Trung (1752-1792) was born in Kien Thanh hamlet, Binh Thanh village, Binh Khe district (Binh Dinh province). In 1788, the Qing court decided to send an expeditionary corps to conquer the divided country. Nguyen Hue proclaimed himself Emperor Quang Trung in Phu Xuan and overran the Chinese troops in a whirlwind campaign. He pacified the Northern part of the country from the Chinese border to the Hai Van pass in the Center and devoted his energies to national rehabilitation, administrative reorganization and economic development. Significantly, Quang Trung replaced the Chinese Han with the popular Nôm as the official language. He died not long after 1792.
Loi du tuong si
The Nguyen dynasty
1802-1819 Nguyn Th T Nguyn Phc nh Gia Long
1820-1840 Nguyn Thnh T Nguyn Phc Đm Minh Mng
1841-1847 Nguyn Hin T Nguyn Miên Tông Thiu Tr
1848-1883 Nguyn Dc Tông Nguyn Hng Nhim T Đc
1883 (3d) Nguyn Dc Đc Nguyn ng Chân Dc Đc
1883 (6m) Nguyn Hip Ho Nguyn Hng Dt Hip Ho
1883-1884 Nguyn Gin Tông Nguyn ng Đang Kin Phc
1884-1885 Nguyn Hm Nghi Nguyn ng Lch Hm Nghi
1886-1888 Nguyn Cnh Tông Nguyn ng Xy Đng Khnh
1889-1907 Nguyn Thnh Thi Nguyn Bu Lân Thnh Thi
1907-1916 Nguyn Duy Tân Nguyn Vnh San Duy Tân
1916-1925 Nguyn Hong Tông Nguyn Bu Đo Khi Đnh
1926-1945 Nguyn Bo Đi Nguyn Vnh Thy Bo Đi
Gia Long, nicknamed Nguyen Anh, founding emperor of the Nguyen dynasty. In 1778, when the Nguyen Capital of Gia Dinh (Saigon) was seized by the Tay Son Rebellion, he was the only surviving member of the Nguyen lords. In 1787, he signed a treaty with France to restore the Nguyen in power in return for the cession port of Tourane (Da Nang) and the island of Poulo Condore. The promised assistant from France did not materialize. In 1801, he subdued the Tay Son with helps from the training in modern military techniques and Bishop of Adran. The dynastic name Gia Long, taken from the names of the southern (Gia Dinh) and northern (Thang Long) capitals, symbolized the reunification. The new capital was place at Hue (Phu Xuan), near the central coast.
Le Van Duyet (1763-1832), regional official in South Viet Nam during 19th century. In 1799, he led Nguyen forces against the Tay Son at Qui Nhon. Gia Long appointed him regent of South Viet Nam including the authority to conduct foreign relations with Europe and other Southeast Asian nations. His attempt to prevent Minh Mang's succession to the throne when Gia Long died, earned him the extreme wrath of the monarch. When he died in 1832, he was post-humously convicted and his grave desecrated, leading his adopted son, Le Van Khoi, to rebel. The revolt posed a serious threat to Minh Mang because advantage was taken of it by Siam sending its troops to Cochin-China. Minh Mang defeated Siamese troops and crushed the rebellion.
Pierre Pigneau de Be'haine, Bishop of Adran, the Catholic missionary who first evoked France's interest in Viet Nam. He befriended a pretender to the Vietnamese throne, Nguyen Anh, who founded the Nguyen dynasty. The Bishop of Adran saw an opportunity to expand the church's influence in the post Tay Son era and negotiated a promise of military aid for Nguyen Anh from the French Government in exchange for territorial and commercial rights.
Prince Canh, Gia Long's eldest son, who accompanied Pierre Pigneau de Be'haine to the court of Louis XVI at Versailles, where he caused a sensation. Canh was educated at a missionary school in Malacca and converted to Catholicism which made him the first Viet prince educated by Wester
Minh Mang, Nguyen's 2nd emperor, once prince Mien Tong, son of Gia Long, a gentle scholar who French propagandists of the time depicted as a cruel tyrant. The Catholic missions had sped up their evangelization of the people provoked Ming Mang's anti-Catholic policy which ordered the prosecution of Catholic missionaries and their Vietnamese converts. The anti-Catholic policy gave French a pretext to intervene in Viet Nam. The landing of a French party in the port of Tourane, in August 1858, heralded the beginning of the colonial occupation which was to last almost a century.
Minh Mang's Mausoleum in Virtual Reality
Phan Thanh Gian (1796-1867). In 1826, he earned a doctorate in the civil service examaminations and entered the imperial bureaucracy. He served as a deputy chief of a diplomatic mission to China, and later was named province chief in Quang Nam and Binh Dinh provinces. In 1862 he was appointed to negotiate a treaty with Napoleon III following the defeat by French forces at Ky Hoa. When the French violated the pact, Phan commited suicide after pledging his sons never to cooperate with France.
Thieu Tri, Nguyen's 3rd emperor, became more and more entrenched in his Confucian doctrine, the country experienced an era of stagnancy. The court mandarins were increasingly blinded to the development of the outside world and worse still, implemented a policy of isolation that forbade any contact with foreigners.
Thieu Tri's Mausoleum in Virtual Reality
Tu Duc, Nguyen's 4th emperor, whose crass persecution of Christians in his realm provided France with a pretext to pursue its colonial encroachment in the region. The execution of a Spanish bishop in 1857 led to the French capture of Saigon in 1859, and three years later Tu Duc was forced to cede part of Cochin China; by 1867 France had annexed all of it. Tu Duc's later attempt to play the French against intervention by China succeeded only in the French occupation of Tonkin in 1882, but he died shortly before the final reduction of his country to a French protectorate in 1883.
Tu Duc's Mausoleum in Virtual Reality
Ham Nghi, Nguyen's 8th emperor. After establishment of French Protectorate in 1884. Brother of Emperor Kien Phuc, who died after a brief reign in 1884, Ham Nghi rose to the throne at the age of twelve. In July 1845 he fled the capital of Hue with Regent Ton That Thuyet to launch the Can Vuong resistance movement against French occupation. Captured in November 1888, Ham Nghi was sent to live out his life in exile in Algeria, and died there in 1947.
Dong Khanh, Nguyen's 9th emperor, selected by the French to rule because of his docility.
Dong Khanh's Mausoleum in Virtual Reality
Thanh Thai, Nguyen's 10th emperor under the French Protectorate. A son of Emperor Duc Duc, who reigned for only 3 days. He resented French domination and was deposed on suspicion of conspiracy in 1907. Exiled to the island of Reunion, he was later returned to Viet Nam.
Duy Tan, Nguyen's 11th emperor
Emperor Duy Tan as a boy
Khai Dinh, Nguyen's 12th emperor
Khai Dinh's Mausoleum in Virtual Reality
Bao Dai, last emperor of the Nguyen dynasty of Viet Nam. He succeeded to the throne in 1926 and ruled under French and—during the last days of World War II—Japanese protection until forced out by the Viet Minh in 1945. He returned in 1949 to head the new state of Viet Nam, set up by France to rival the Communist government of Ho Chi Minh. After Viet Nam's partition in 1954, Bao Dai remained head of state in South Viet Nam until deposed by Premier Ngo Dinh Diem the following year. Thereafter he lived in exile. more?
Legend: = cac anh hung chong Phap
Truong Cong Dinh , (1820-1864). Military commander of Vietnamese forces resisting the French conquest of South Viet Nam in the early 1860s. Born in Quang Nam Province, he was the son of a career military officer, who was appointed commander of royal troops in Gia Dinh Province, near present-day Saigon. When the threat of French invasion loomed in the late 1850s, he helped organize military settlements (cong dien) and became deputy commander of militia forces in the region. After taking part in the Battle of Ky Hoa (February 1861), Truong Dinh withdrew his forces south of Saigon, where he launched a prolonged guerrilla resistance against French occupation. Ordered to desist by the imperial court after the Treaty of Saigon (June 1962), he refused and continued the struggle. Wounded in battle in August 1864, he committed suicide.
Ton That Thuyet , lanh tu phong trao Can Vuong. Anti-French resistance leader in 19th century Viet Nam. After the Treaty of Protectorate in 1884 established French control over the Vietnamese Empire, Ton That Thuyet, an influential court official, fled with the young Emperor Ham Nghi in the hope of launching a nationwide revolt against French rule. Seeking refuge in the mountains north of Hue, Ton That Thuyet and Ham Nghi issued an appeal entitled "Save the King" (Can Vuong) to the Vietnamese people for support.
Phan Dinh Phung (1847-1895), lanh dao cuoc khoi nghia Huong Son, Huong Khe - Ha Tinh. Cung voi Cao Thang chi huy cuoc khoi nghia chong quan Phap trong 10 nam, 1885-1895.
Anti-French resistance leader in late 19th-century Viet Nam. Raised in a scholar-official family from Ha Tinh Province, Phan Dinh Phung received a doctorate (tien si) in the civil service examinations given in 1877. He served in the Imperial Censorate (Do Sat Vien), where he was noted for his integrity and was briefly imprisoned in 1883 for refusing to sanction a successor to the deceased Emperor Tu Duc not designated by the emperor himself. When Emperor Ham Nghi issued his famous "Can Vuong" (Save the King) appeal in July 1885, Phan Dinh Phung responded and launched a revolt in his native province of Ha Tinh. The movement quickly spread to neighboring provinces and lasted 10 years, despite numerous appeals to Phan Dinh Phung from colleagues who had chosen to collaborate with the French, and despite the desecration of his ancestral plot by the colonial regime. The movement was a nuisance to the French, but the rebels lacked weapons and central direction from the puppet court in Hue, and shortly after Phan Dinh Phung died of dysentery in December 1895 it collapsed.
Hoang Hoa Tham ( ? -1913), also known as De Tham, lanh dao cuoc khoi nghia nong dan Yen The (Ha Bac). Da ben bi to chuc chong Phap trong gan 30 nam (1885-1913). Pirate leader and patriot in French-ruled Viet Nam. Born in a poor peasant family in Hung Yen Province in the mid-19th century, De Tham was raised in Yen The, in the rugged mountains north of the Red River Delta, and as a young man joined the Black Flag bandit organization led by the pirate leader Luu Vinh Phuc. He became a bandit leader , stealing from the rich to help the poor. After vainly attempting to suppress his movement, the French made a truce with De Tham in 1893, but the latter began to cooperate with anticolonial elements and allegedly took part in a plot to poison the Hanoi military garrison planned by Phan Boi Chau. The French resumed their efforts to capture him, and he was assassinated by an agent of the French in 1913.
Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940), lanh tu phong trao Dong Du, 1904-1909.
Leading figure in the anti-colonial movement in early 20th-century Viet Nam. He earned a second class degree (Pho bang) in the metropolitan examinations in 1900. In 1903 he formed a revolutionary organization called the Restoration Society (Duy Tan Hoi) under the titular leadership of Prince Cuong De. Two years later he established his headquarters in Japan, where he wrote patriotic tracts designed to stir anti-French sentiments among the general population and encourage young Vietnamese to flee abroad and join his exile organization. In 1912 he transformed the Modernization Society into a new organization, the Vietnamese Restoration Society (Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi). Several attempted uprisings in Viet Nam failed. Phan Boi Chau himself was briefly imprisoned in China. On his release in 1917, he appeared temporarily discouraged at the prospects of victory, writing a pamphlet entitled "France-Vietnamese Harmony" (Phap-Viet De Hue) . In 1925 Phan Boi Chau was seized by French agents while passing through the International Settlement in Shanghai. Brought under guard to Hanoi, he was tried and convicted of treason. He spent the remainder of his life in house arrest in Hue and died in 1940.
Cuong De , Prince. Member of the Nguyen royal house who took an active role in anti-colonial activities in French-ruled Viet Nam. A descendent of Prince Canh, the first son of founding Emperor Gia Long, Cuong De served as the titular leader of Phan Boi Chau's Modernization Society (Duy Tan Hoi), established in 1903. Cuong De died in 1957.
Luong Van Can , sang lap Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc tai Ha Noi, 1907.
Phan Chu Trinh (1872-1926), mot trong nhung thu linh cua phong trao Duy Tan, 1906-1908.
Nguyen Thai Hoc (1908-1930), lanh tu Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang.